May 2020

Crew Car - "Conneaut"

Specifications
Builder:American Car and Foundry Co.
Built:1925
Original Owner:Wabash Railroad
Type:Baggage / RPO
Capacity:
Acquired:1990’s

The crew car (sometimes referred to as a “tool car”) is a critical component for operating steam locomotives in the 21st century. When steam ruled the rails, the specialized equipment necessary to make a quick, minor repair could be found at every division point on the railroad. Today, these options no longer exist. Instead, steam operators must carry the necessary tools and equipment with them. Typically the crew car is positioned just behind the locomotive. Car 5012, named “Conneaut,” handles this important job for the Age of Steam Roundhouse Museum.

This car was built in 1925 for the Wabash Railroad as a combination coach and baggage car. Some years later, the passenger space was converted to a Railway Post Office. Mail was picked up by this car and transferred between railway stations. During the trip, postal clerks sorted mail to ensure it went to the proper destination. The car continued in this service, transferring to the Norfolk and Western Railway after the Wabash was merged into it in 1964.

In the 1960’s after its mail-carrying career was over, the car was acquired by the High Iron Company (HICO) and converted for use as a crew car. High Iron pioneered the operation of steam locomotives on excursion trains, and modified one end of the car with racks and a workbench to carry the numerous spare parts, tools, and other equipment needed to perform repairs away from the home shop. In the central section, showers, lockers, a washer and a small vanity was installed to give crew members some of the comforts of home. Finally, a small galley, washroom and sitting area were included to give the steam crew a spot to relax between runs. As HICO had rebuilt Nickel Plate Road 2-8-4 locomotive #759 in Conneaut, Ohio, the car was named after that location.

Jerry Jacobson purchased the Conneaut in the late 1990’s, continuing to use it for support of his steam locomotives. Many Ohio Central steam excursions included the Conneaut, with steam crew members enjoying the view provided through the open baggage doors when they were not taking their turn operating the locomotive. The car was transferred into the Age of Steam fleet with Jerry’s collection of steam locomotives.

The Conneaut has supported excursions with many famous preserved steam locomotives, including:

  • Nickel Plate Road 2-8-4 #759
  • Chesapeake & Ohio 4-8-4 #614
  • Reading 4-8-4 #2102
  • Grand Trunk Western 4-8-4 #6325
  • Canadian Pacific 4-6-2 #1293
  • Lake Superior & Ishpeming 2-8-0 #33

Pullman - "White Castle"

Specifications
Builder:Pullman Company
Built:1920
Original Owner:Pullman Company
Type:Heavyweight Sleeping Car
Capacity:Sleeping accommodations for 27 adults
Acquired:1990’s

Our Pullman heavyweight sleeping car – named “White Castle” – boasts an impressive resume. Read on for more information on the many jobs this car has held over the years.

The Pullman Company manufactured and operated railroad sleeping cars during the first half of the 20th Century. Pullman developed a unique business arrangement with the railroads; Pullman built, owned, and operated the sleeping car service attached to overnight trains. In the process, the Pullman name became synonymous with comfort on the rails. Pullman typically employed African American men as porters. After unionizing in 1925, The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters became a powerful political organization which made significant contributions to the American Civil Rights Movement.

This car was originally named “Auckland” and included a drawing room, men’s and women’s washrooms, and twelve open sections, each section comprising an upper and lower sleeping berth. During the day, porters would convert the lower berth to passenger seating while the upper berth was tilted up and into the wall to provide more space. After an extensive renovation in 1936 which removed the drawing room and added two double bedrooms, the car was renamed “White Castle” and assigned to first-class sleeping car service on the Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad.

Pullman eventually came under increased scrutiny by the US Government for monopolizing the sleeping car industry, and in 1944 was forced to divest its operations arm. As a result, the Pullman cars – including the White Castle – were sold off to the railroads on which they operated. This car continued in sleeper service with the P&LE until 1958, when it was transferred to wrecking train duty. Again the car was heavily modified, with six of the sleeping sections, both double bedrooms and one of the washrooms removed. In this empty space, a large kitchen dining area was installed to feed the wreck train crew. With six open sections remaining the car could still sleep twelve crew members.

When the declining P&LE sold off large amounts of equipment in the early 1990’s, Jerry Jacobson bought the entire McKee’s Rocks wreck train for his Ohio Central railroad. Spotted outside the Morgan Run Locomotive Shop, the White Castle provided accommodations for volunteers working to rebuild and operate Jerry’s growing fleet of steam locomotives. After being transferred to the Age of Steam Roundhouse, the car was repurposed yet again as the field office at the Roundhouse construction site.

Over the Winter of 2018-2019, the White Castle was cleaned up and repainted in a proper coat of Pullman green. New windows were installed, including recreations of the etched “P&LE” glass windows at the ends of the car.

Other than a steam loco, nothing says “Old-Time Railroading” more than a wooden water tank—Part 2

By John B. Corns

Having completed a satisfactory design and size for a wooden water tank tub to hold the water destined for filling steam locomotive tenders and, eventually, steam locomotive boilers, the next aspect was to design an elevated tower to hold that tank of water high above the track. By pumping the water up into the tank only as needed to keep the tank full, the water would be immediately available at any time through a gravity-fed system that required only the efforts of the locomotive’s fireman to fill the tender.

Initially, water tank towers were made of wood, but through the years were sometimes replaced with stronger ironwork and even concrete. Timber towers were the most popular because the materials were inexpensive to purchase, easy to erect and simple to maintain. The American Railroad Engineering Association (AREA) standard water tank tower usually had 12 vertical posts arranged in two, intersecting rows of 8 posts each, forming an “X” when viewed from above. This 12-post tower provided a better distribution of the massive weight of the water above, and better supported the water tub’s bottom without the need for an elaborate floor system. The vertical posts were topped with horizontal 12”x14” timber caps upon which was built a framework of 4”x14” joists that supported the tub floor. To reduce rot and extend their service life, the vertical wooden timbers sat on concrete or stone pedestals called “piers” to keep the ends of the wooden posts out of the overflow water and accompanying mud that usually accumulated on the ground surrounding the base of the water tank. Each concrete pier had a 7-foot tall, 4’x4’ square-shaped base buried in the ground and topped with concrete shaped like a truncated pyramid.

Usually, the vertical wood posts were a minimum of 12”x12” square with a length as determined by the desired “head” of the water in the tank (its elevation and gravitational force) above track level. The AREA standard was 20 feet between the rail head and the floor of the tub, but that measurement varied from location to location, and even by the size of locomotive tenders. The twelve, White Oak, vertical posts holding up the Age of Steam Roundhouse Museum’s water tank are 17-feet tall, measure 14”x14” square, and are the most massive wood timbers in the entire museum complex. These posts have to be massive in order to support the 415,000 pounds of water contained in the roundhouse’s 16’x24’ 50,000-gallon wooden tub. As with the foundations of all structures at AoSRM, each of these 12 vertical posts and their concrete piers sits on a separate wood piling driven 25 feet down into the soft Blue Clay ground, using frictional support between the dirt and wood to hold all that weight. The water tank’s vertical posts are topped with 14” caps and 14” floor joists underneath the wooden tub, and combined with the height of the ground-level concrete piers, equals the standard 20-foot height above track level.

During the early days of railroading when locomotives and tenders were constantly being replaced with newer models having greater size and capacity, water tank towers had to be raised higher and higher to keep the water supply above the top of the tender. This was accomplished by installing larger blocks of cut stone underneath each vertical post in the water tank’s tower until the desired height above rail was achieved. (The Wheeling & Lake Erie used home-designed, cast iron pipes measuring 10’-6” tall as the legs for its water towers, but the road must not have considered that locomotive tenders would grow larger . . . and higher, so oftentimes several cut-stone blocks would be stacked underneath each vertical post to achieve the desired height. When tubs needed replacing due to deterioration, taller wood towers would be erected to prevent the jacking-up of too-short posts.)

To replenish the used water in the tank, delivery pipes extended from the ground into the bottom of the tub and were enclosed in an insulated, wooden “frost box” to prevent freezing. This box contained several layers of wooden walls covered with insulating felt or building paper, and which were separated by 2-inch air spaces. Five such insulating air spaces offered protection down to 30-degrees below zero (Fahrenheit) where the water consumption each 24 hours equaled the capacity of the tub. Put simply, the high amount of energy required to freeze fast-moving water causes it to still freeze at 32-degrees F, but at a slower rate than if the water were not moving. On railroads located in northern climates (particularly the Canadian Pacific), to prevent freezing it was not unusual to enclose the entire water tank and tower in a wooden structure equipped with a heating stove. As the Age of Steam Roundhouse’s 50,000-gallon water tank supplies water for a fire suppression sprinkler system, an electrically-powered immersion heater sits inside the tub to prevent the mostly stationary water from freezing.

All railroad watering facilities needed a nearby source to replenish the water as tanks were emptied. In larger cities the municipal water works was occasionally the supplier, particularly since the already-pressurized water did not need a railroad-supplied employee to operate the steam-powered pump to elevate the water up into the tub. A city meter was installed to record the amount of water that was consumed, and the railroad was billed accordingly. In rural areas, lakes and rivers were preferred as water sources with railroad pumphouses raising the water into the elevated lineside tanks. If an above-ground water source were not available, a well would be drilled to reach underground water. Depending on the terrain and its affect on the quality of the water source, a reservoir or settling pond would be constructed so that particulate matter—such as sand, mud and algae—could settle to the bottom of the pond so that clearer water toward the pond’s surface was pumped into the tank. These reservoirs and ponds were constructed to hold at least a week’s water supply to allow proper settling of particulates, thus reducing tub cleaning and locomotive boiler “blowdowns” that expelled water contaminated by foreign matter. An old railroad adage summed it up—“If you wouldn’t drink it, don’t put it into a locomotive.”

Adjacent to most water tanks sat a pumphouse containing a steam- or electrically-powered pump that raised water into the elevated tank. There were no set standards for these pumps and houses, so they were constructed from a variety of materials in a myriad of shapes, sizes and styles whose appearance varied from railroad to railroad. In some remote areas the pumphouse was incorporated as an integral part of a telegraph office or depot to reduce construction and maintenance costs. Some of the more interesting pumphouses had a wooden superstructure resembling an old oil derrick projecting through the roof, evidence of a water well drilled below the building.

While it was relatively inexpensive to construct and maintain, the wooden water tank had numerous drawbacks. Its flat tub bottom collected mud, sand and other sediments that could interfere with the water valve located in the middle of the tub’s floor. To clean out this accumulated mess, the tub would have to be completely drained so that a worker could descend the interior ladder to the floor and hand-shovel the mud into buckets. With the aid of a rope, a second workman removed the buckets through the roof hatch, and a third worker emptied the buckets into a standing gondola or dump truck for final removal. This was a very tedious and labor intensive process that needed repeating several times yearly depending on the quality and clarity of the water at that site.

High quality lumber in long lengths became scarce, adding to the wood water tank’s initial construction and maintenance costs. To save money, cheaper grades of lumber were substituted during initial construction, but in the long run this increased maintenance and costs. Deferred maintenance increased the number of wooden water tank failures, so, as their budgets allowed, railroads began installing steel water tanks on a trial basis.

Steel water tanks had been around for many years, but were rejected at first because of their higher costs of materials and construction, leaky riveted seams, susceptibility to corrosion and increased maintenance. Most small railroads rejected the idea of steel water tanks because of their high initial cost, but larger, more profitable roads recognized their superior qualities—especially over a long period of time—and adopted them, if possible. Steel water tanks were installed at busy locomotive terminals where huge storage capacity was required, thus offsetting the cost of having several smaller wood water tanks to do the same job. Steel tanks maintained higher water temperatures during winter weather because of their insulating false-bottoms and tight-fitting steel roofs. The conical- and hemispherical-shaped bottoms of steel water tanks also permitted easier and more economical, one-man removal of sediment and sludge by flushing them out through a drain valve on the side of the conical bottom without having to empty the entire tank, or needing three workmen to do the same job. Steel tanks were stronger than those of wood, had greater capacity, were easier to clean, and needed less maintenance, that is, after several problems had been solved with the design of early-day steel water tanks.

Steel Caboose - W&LE 0222

Specifications
Builder:W&LE Ironville Shop
Built:1949
Original Owner:Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway
Capacity:-
Class:AAR Class NE
Acquired:2009

One of a handful of pieces in the Age of Steam with local ties, caboose 0222 was built in 1949 by the Wheeling and Lake Erie’s own Ironville (Toledo) Ohio car shop. The original Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway included a line that stretch from Zanesville northward all the way to Cleveland. One wonders how many freight trains 0222 trailed past a certain cornfield outside Sugarcreek that would be transformed into the Age of Steam Roundhouse Museum many years later.

After serving the W&LE and its corporate successors the Nickel Plate Road and Norfolk and Western, this caboose became the property of a tourist train operator in Minerva, Ohio. After that organization went out of business, Age of Steam acquired the car. After a multiple-year wait, 0222 finally moved by train to the Roundhouse in 2015.

Age of Steam crew members carefully sanded and repainted the caboose following the original paint blueprints. While numerous former W&LE steel cabooses still exist, 0222 is among very few restored to as-built condition and paint.

Bobber Caboose - CO&E 0100

Specifications
Builder:John Uher / CO&E RR
Built:2005
Original Owner:Coshocton, Otsego & Eastern RR
Capacity:
Class:
Acquired:2014

Getting their nickname from the way that a floating bobber danced in the water on the end of a fishing line, “bobber” cabooses tended to ride rough and jostle riders. This was primarily due to their short length and use of only two, “fixed” (i.e., non-swiveling) axles with four wheels.

While economical to construct and operate, bobber cabooses were dangerous because of injuries—and even deaths—to railroad crewmen who were knocked-over while working in the rough-riding cars. Also, just one broken wheel (an all-too-common occurrence during the 1890 to 1920-era) meant that a 4-wheel bobber trailing behind a moving freight train could not stay upright on only three wheels, and would immediately derail and crash.

During 1913 the Ohio General Assembly passed Senate Bill 298 outlawing the operation of bobber cabooses in the State of Ohio, with a period of time alllowed for the change-over to longer cabooses that rode on eight wheels, not four. The bobber design quickly took a backseat to larger and smoother-riding cabooses with a pair of two-axle wheelsets. Because of their small size and light weight, retired bobbers often had their wheels removed and were used across the railroad system as yard offices, crew shanties and storage sheds.

While the 0100 fits right in with the Age of Steam Roundhouse Museum’s historic railroad equipment, this caboose is actually one of the newest-built pieces in the collection.

The Coshocton, Otsego & Eastern was a little-known coal hauler which served a coal mine in central Ohio. In 1917, the CO&E became part of the Wheeling & Lake Erie Railway, but was eventually abandoned after the mine shut down. The obscure little railroad faded into the history books and W&LE’s corporate records.

During the 1990s and 2000s, train enthusiast and Ohio Central Railroad employee, John Uher relaid 1 mile of standard gauge track on the CO&E’s former right-of-way near Coshocton, Ohio. He acquired a small GE diesel switching locomotive – now also part of the AoSRM’s collection – and ran short trips for family and friends along his little railroad. For rolling stock, Mr. Uher built his own caboose, primarily referencing a single photo of a similar one for guidance! Displaying a strong attention to detail, he outfitted his very accurate bobber caboose with all of the tools and fittings one would find inside the real thing.

Sadly, Mr. Uher passed away in 2010. Jerry Jacobson acquired John’s railroad equipment and moved it to Sugarcreek. Caboose 0100 still sees occasional trips around the AoSRM facility and resides safely inside the Roundhouse when not in use.

Idler Cars - P&LE X300504 and NS 960088

A railroad wreck crane’s constant companion was the idler car, sometimes known as a “boom car.” The idler car was typically a re-purposed flatcar or gondola which would be coupled directly ahead of the crane and below the crane’s long boom, allowing the crane to be coupled to the rest of the train. In addition to providing space for the crane’s boom, the idler car was usually outfitted to carry equipment needed for wreck cleanups, for example tools, spare wheels, or lengths of panel track.

Age of Steam Roundhouse Museum owns two idler cars. Former Pittsburgh and Lake Erie X300504 was the mating idler car for our 160-ton former P&LE wrecking crane. Jerry Jacobson purchased the entire P&LE wreck train in the 1990’s, at which time X300504 became Ohio Central Railroad X502. X300504 was built from a P&LE gondola car.

Former Norfolk Southern idler car 960088 was built from a flatcar and includes special toolboxes and other fittings to carry railroad wheelsets, lifting cables, and tools. Prior to purchase by the Ohio Central, 960088 was assigned to the Bellevue, Ohio wreck train.