Collections

Bobber Caboose - PC&Y 20

Specifications
Builder:Pennsylvania Railroad
Built:1905
Original Owner:Pennsylvania Railroad
Capacity:
Class:ND
Acquired:2013

Bobber cabooses – see our CO&E 0100 page for an explanation of the name – made for a rough ride for crew members keeping watch from the rear of the train.

This wood-sided bobber was built by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1905 for use on its freight trains across its system. We have not yet found its original PRR number. Replaced by more modern cabooses (“cabin cars” in PRR parlance), the little caboose was sold to the Pittsburgh and Ohio Valley Railway around 1920. It served the P&OV, Shenango Furnance Company, and finally the Pittsburgh, Chartiers and Youghiogheny Railroad as its number 20. All primarily served Pittsburgh’s booming steel industry.

Retired by the PC&Y in the 1960’s, the caboose passed into the private ownership railroad executive Fred Okie. Okie donated it – along with Carnegie Steel engine #14 – to the Pittsburgh History & Landmarks Foundation in 1978. The engine and caboose joined other historic railroad equipment on display at Station Square, the newly-renovated shopping center based in the former Pittsburgh & Lake Erie passenger terminal. Accordingly, the caboose was adorned with a P&LE logo.

Another Station Square renovation caused the engine and caboose to be moved to a display site in Sewickley, Pennsylvania. When the borough chose to seek a new home for the equipment, Jerry Jacobson successfully bid on the little train set and they were moved to Sugarcreek in late 2013.

A little worse for wear after so many years outside, this historic little caboose finally received a thorough overhaul in 2020. Age of Steam restoration specialists replaced rotted wood, cleaned up metal components, and applied a new coat of paint. The bobber is now restored to its former look as PC&Y 20.

 

Builders’ Plates Needed for Restorations of Age of Steam Roundhouse Museum Steamers

By John B. Corns

The talented, experienced and dedicated steam locomotive repair and restoration experts at the Age of Steam Roundhouse Museum work diligently to locate, acquire, and install rare appliances for accurate physical representations of all 23 of these beautiful beasts currently housed in the museum’s collection.

As for those locomotives being rebuilt for return to operation, sometimes the exact, old repair parts are not available. Beggars can’t be choosers, and back shop workers must select close-substitute items for acquisition, restoration and attachment to bare boilers. Difficult-to-find items—such as injectors, turbo-generators and cross-compound air compressors—sometimes can be substituted with similar, suitable replacements that will not adversely affect a locomotive’s operation or performance. If a replacement steam pressure gauge were selected for use in the cab, few folks would ever know or care if that gauge was not original to the engine. But if a totally wrong major appliance were applied—such as a big, flat, side-mounted Worthington feedwater heater instead of a smokebox-mounted, cylindrically-shaped Elesco version— the visible and operational differences would be quickly known. That doesn’t usually happen, as such large items are difficult to remove, so stayed on the retired, preserved locomotives.

But more common, easily removed collectible hardware—such as builders’ plates, bells, whistles and headlights—were often “liberated” (stolen) by souvenir hunters from long lines of locomotives headed to the scrap yards. Sometimes a down-and-out old steamer would be selected for donation to an on-line town, pulled from the dead line, and spruced-up with parts liberated from other unfortunate locos still in line. So, oftentimes the original items are not those seen on saved locos.

Perhaps the most collectible locomotive hardware items are builders’ plates. With large numerals, they carry a locomotive’s specific, identifying serial number, thereby serving as birth certificates of sorts. Those serial numbers are easily checked and recognized as being accurate or not, and therefore, great care must be given to builders’ plates for application to preserved engines, as plates must be selected carefully, or reproduced accurately, to maintain a locomotive’s historical identity.

Recently listed on e-bay, AoSRM discovered for sale an Alco Schenectady builder’s plate that had been removed from one of our locomotives long before we acquired the steamer. It is unknown just when and under what circumstances this plate had been removed from the locomotive, but we were thrilled to acquire and bolt this long-absent artifact back onto its former, rightful place on a cylinder. With both original builder’s plates again in AoSRM possession, the 0-4-0T was once again complete.

That got us thinking about other builder’s plates that are missing from some of AoSRM’s steamers, so to help us locate them, I am asking for your help. Please look through your collections of builders’ plates and let us know if you have any of those plates that are missing from our locomotives. AoSRM does not lay claim to your property and has no intention to attempt to reclaim any plates, but we would love to purchase, trade or otherwise acquire any of your plates that at one time were attached to our locomotives. If nothing else, good copy plates would be acceptable if you prefer to retain your originals. Look around in your basement and garage for any forgotten plates, and check their serial numbers with our list (below). We hope you are successful in your search. Please contact AoSRM if you are able to assist us. Thanks!

Here is a list of those builders’ plates that the Age of Steam Roundhouse Museum is seeking to acquire:

#1 0-4-0C New Orleans Sewerage & Water H.K. Porter 1915 #5731
#2 0-4-0F Columbus & Southern Ohio Electric Heisler Loco Works 1940 #54
#3 0-4-0T Southern Wood Preserving Am Loco — Schenectady 1926 #66308
#4 0-6-0T U.S. Navy/BEDT #13 H.K. Porter 1919 #6369
#9 2-6-2 Caddo & Choctaw/MᶜCloud River Baldwin Loco Works 1901 #18596
#12 0-6-0 Southern/Morehead & North Fork Am Loco — Pittsburg 1905 #37672
#13 2-8-0 KC&NW/Buffalo Creek & Gauley American Loco – Brooks 1920 #61579
#14 0-4-0T Carnegie Steel/U.S. Steel H.K. Porter 1897 #1726
#19 2-8-2 Yreka Western/Oregon Pac & East Baldwin Loco Works 1915 #42000
#33 2-8-0 Lake Superior & Ishpeming Baldwin Loco Works 1916 #43108
#96 2-6-0 Grand Trunk Rwy/Canadian Nat’l Canadian Loco Company 1910 #937
#105 0-6-0 Sturm & Dillard Co. Baldwin Loco Works 1917 #44886
#401 2-10-0 Alabama Tennessee & Northern Baldwin Loco Works 1929 #60341
#643 2-10-4 Bessemer & Lake Erie Baldwin Loco Works 1944 #70057
#763 2-8-4 Nickel Plate Road Lima Locomotive Works 1944 #8671
#1187 0-4-0C Reading Baldwin Loco Works 1903 #21831
#1190 0-6-0 Buffalo Rochester & Pgh/Balt & Oh American Loco — Brooks 1904 #28753
#1278 4-6-2 Canadian Pacific Canadian Loco Company 1948 #2435
#1293 4-6-2 Canadian Pacific Canadian Loco Company 1948 #2450
#1551 4-6-0 Canadian Northern/ Can National Montreal Loco Works 1912 #50778
#2630 2-8-0 U.S. Army Transportation Corps Baldwin Loco Works 1943 #69858
#3960 0-6-0 Wheeling & Lake Erie W&LE Brewster Shop 1935 —
#6325 4-8-4 Grand Trunk Western Am Loco — Schenectady 1942 #69631

Steam Locomotive Bronze Birth Certificates

By John B. Corns

Some companies called them “manufacturer’s plates” or “identification plates,” and at least one railroad called them “badges.” But the name used most often was/is “builder’s plate,” a heavy, cast metal sign that displayed important information (at the minimum, the builder’s name, a serial number and date of construction) that was affixed to each locomotive for a permanent identification of that particular engine. Detailed records of each locomotive’s construction (blueprints, measurements, specifications, types and location of appliances, etc.) were maintained by each of the builders, and railroads kept for their own reference the detailed records of old repairs and new modifications whenever locomotives needed maintenance. Usually, a builder’s plate was bolted onto both sides of a locomotive’s curved smokebox as the preferred method of keeping track of each loco’s identity, as each engine would need to be stripped “down to the bare boiler” of all piping, appliances, jacketing, wheels, cab, etc., during major rebuilds. Some builders attached their plates to the smokebox fronts or cylinder saddles.

Each early-day locomotive builder took pride in its products, and large, fancy builder’s plates were attached to the side frames between the locomotives’ driving wheels, as much for decoration as for identification. There was no mass-production in those days, so each builder’s plate began as a separate, hand-carved, wood pattern from which an individual sand mold was made for the pouring of molten metal—usually bronze—into its hollow cavity. As locomotive demand increased and production accelerated, sturdy, reusable wood patterns with removable and interchangeable serial numerals and dates replaced the time-consuming and somewhat fragile hand-carved patterns. But as locomotives became more utilitarian and less stylish, their builders’ plates shrank in size and became less ornate. Ah, American productivity and efficiency at their best!

During the late 1800s, locomotive manufacturers decreased in number and began employing builders’ plates of various geometric shapes to differentiate their companies, most using circles, rectangles, diamonds and ovals at one time or another. After 1904, the American Locomotive Company’s nine subsidiary U.S. companies began using standardized rectangles, Baldwin Locomotive Works had been using round plates since the 1870s, and in 1918 the Lima Locomotive Works began using diamonds. Porter, a builder of smaller industrial steamers, used a shield shape. And supplier Locomotive Firebox Company used distinctive heart-shaped plates decorated with a bas-relief image of their popular product, the Nicholson Thermic Syphon, “The Heart of the Locomotive.” A few railroads, notably the Pennsylvania, the Norfolk & Western, and the Baltimore & Ohio, constructed their own steamers and attached their own style of plates with class designations (e.g. K4s). Because of its durability and resistance to corrosion, bronze was the favored metal used to make most builder’s plates. However, for the locomotives rebuilt at his Detroit Toledo & Ironton shop in Flat Rock, Michigan, the ever-frugal Henry Ford reportedly used old freight car journal brasses to cast new builder’s plates, as evidenced by the gray babbit metal swirling through his rectangular builder’s plates of recycled brass. Ah, American cost-saving at its best!

During World War II, copper was needed for massive amounts of military electrical products, and copper’s cousins, bronze and brass, were essential for manufacture of more than 50 billion rifle and pistol shell casings. To prevent shortages of these red metals, beginning in 1942 all locomotive builder’s plates were made from more plentiful cast iron, and 500 million, one-cent U.S. pennies were minted in 1943 from steel, not copper. After the war, builder’s plate appearances were altered to reflect the addition of new diesel locomotives to the builders’ old product lines. In 1949, American builders ended 120 years of steam locomotive construction, and within a decade more efficient, modern diesels had vanquished tired, old steamers to scrap, with a lucky few enshrined in city parks and museums as monuments to the Age of Steam. During the 1950s-60s, builder’s plates from America’s foremost diesel loco manufacturer (EMD, the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors) had been relegated to cheap-looking, stamped pieces of stainless steel in the shape of a hot dog on a bun. Ah, American asset-saving at its best!

Alco builder's plates from Southern Wood Preserving 0-4-0T #3

As the old-time steamers were retired and scrapped, their builders’ plates became collectible antiques and were acquired by souvenir-seeking railfans through legitimate sales, donations, thefts and other forms of “liberation.” Unfortunately, some builders’ plates were scrapped along with their famous or significant steamers, such as all the plates from Alco’s last steam locomotives, seven Pittsburgh & Lake Erie 2-8-4s and all the unique diamond-shaped plates from their Lima-built tenders. Fortunately, the Baldwin and Lima plates from their last steamers are saved. During the 1950s and early 60s, locomotive scrapping reached its peak and a builders’ plate could be purchased for five bucks from the local scrap yard. With so many inexpensive steam locomotive builder’s plates readily available, there was little need for making reproduction or phony plates. But as plate supplies dropped and prices rose, so did the number of forgeries—hundreds of fake plates flood today’s market. Caveat emptor! Some of the surviving original builders’ plates are considered rarities, and today a few have fetched more than $13,000 each! Ah, supply and demand, American capitalism at its best!

Age of Steam Roundhouse Museum founder and builder, Jerry Jacobson, loved steam locomotive builder’s plates and had amassed a nice collection of the various styles from the numerous builders. Some of them are exhibited on a wall in the AoSRM gift shop, but these are for display, not for sale! In some instances, AoSRM has been able to acquire one (or both) of the original builders’ plates from several of its 23 steam locomotives, but is always searching other collections and auctions for those plates that are still missing from its other locos.

Southern Wood Preserving 0-4-0T #3

Recently, a sharp-eyed AoSRM volunteer spotted on eBay an unidentified builder’s plate that was long-missing from former Southern Wood Preserving 0-4-0T saddletank loco #3. No one knew that this mysterious plate was from a preserved AoSRM steamer because #3 had been constructed as a ready-to-run stock locomotive, and Alco records showed no name for the company that purchased the 0-4-0T, just the loco’s builder’s number and date of construction. This loco had been built during January 1926 by Alco’s Cooke Works in Paterson, New Jersey, and assigned Alco’s boiler serial number 66308. There was no immediate buyer and the loco sat unsold for two years until March 3, 1928, when purchased by the wood preserving company. However, by then Alco’s Cooke Works had been shut down and its locomotive production ended, so the old pedigree of this 0-4-0T was changed to that of Alco’s sole remaining plant still producing steam locomotives, its Schenectady Works. Two new builder’s plates were cast by Alco to reflect not only the substituted location of the old loco’s manufacture (Schenectady instead of Cooke), but also the date of sale which was two years newer than the loco’s actual date of construction. After all, nobody would want to purchase in 1928 a “brand-new” locomotive whose builder’s plates read “1926.” These data changes made perfect business sense, especially since the Schenectady Works was the sole survivor of Alco’s nine subsidiary plants, and would handle all future communications with the thousands of world-wide owners of Alco’s still-operating locomotives. Ah, American marketing at its best!

A note to all new collectors of old locomotive builders’ plates … If you feel that you must clean the front side of your dirty, greasy, soot-covered builder’s plate to make a pretty and shiny display, do so as little as possible. And never, NEVER sandblast the back side of any original builder’s plate. It is that century-old, baked-on dirt, grease, soot and crud that confirms your plate is authentic and an original artifact. So far, the plate fakers have not come up with a practical and realistic-appearing method of duplicating 100+ year’s-worth of on-the-boiler-aging to the back sides of builders’ plates, but they are working on it with various applications of acid and soot, and then heating their fake plates with propane torches. As they say, “Ain’t nothing like the real thing, Baby!”

Tank Car - UTLX 88208

Specifications
Builder:N/A
Built:1961
Original Owner:Hercules Powder Company
Capacity:11,000 Gallons
Class:AAR Class TM
Acquired:1990’s

Age of Steam Roundhouse Museum’s 11,000 gallon tank car was originally owned by Hercules Powder Company. Hercules was a well-known manufacturer of gunpowder. The company – began as a division of DuPont – employed a fleet of tank cars (supplemented by many others leased from Union Tank Lines and General American Tank) to transport raw materials to their factories. Tank cars in service for Hercules generally carried resin or glycerin.

Tank car 88208 was meticulously cleaned and restored to its original appearance in late 2020. The car now features the distinctive Hercules Powder Company logo, a depiction of the Roman mythological figure.

Reading 0-4-0 "Camelback" No. 1187

Specifications
Builder:Baldwin Locomotive Works – Philadelphia, Penn.
Built:1903
Serial Number:#21831
Wheel Arrangement:0-4-0
Driver Diameter:50″
Cylinder Bore x Stroke:16″ x 24″
Boiler Pressure:200 psi
Pulling Power:20,890 lbs. tractive effort
Engine Weight:52 tons
Length:48′ 10″
Fuel:Anthracite Coal
Capacity:Coal – 5.5 tons; Water – 3,500 gallons
Class:A-4b
Status:Non-Operational

Railroads – like any well-run business – constantly seek to control costs and find more efficient methods to accomplish their goals. One of the more unique ways this concept manifested itself in the early days of steam railroading was the innovative “Camelback” locomotive design.

The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad served numerous anthracite coal mines in Eastern Pennsylvania. Anthracite is harder and denser than typical bituminous coal and burns slowly with high heat and minimal smoke. These properties made anthracite a popular choice for heating buildings in the days before gas and electric heating. The mines shipped anthracite in gravel-sized lumps; the remaining dust and small pieces (referred to as “culm”) were piled outside the mine and forgotten about.

John Wooten served as the General Manager of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad beginning in 1876, having previously worked as the P&R’s Superintendent of Motive Power. He noted the growing culm piles along the railroad and envisioned using this anthracite waste for low-cost locomotive fuel. To do so, the locomotive firebox needed to be wider and shallower than the designs that were then popular. By widening the firebox grate to the full width of the locomotive and moving it above the drive wheels, Wooten created a locomotive which could make use of anthracite and save his company money. With these changes, however, the locomotive cab no longer could fit on the rear of the boiler; the solution was to move it forward, straddling the boiler in front of the firebox. The engineer would operate the engine from this cramped enclosure; the fireman scooped coal while standing on the tender deck and was almost completely exposed to the elements. This unique design was nicknamed “Mother Hubbard” or, more popularly, “Camelback.”

The Camelback concept saw mixed success; anthracite-hauling railroads embraced the idea but the engines were never especially popular with crews. The cramped cab sat directly over the driving rods, which put the engineer in danger should a rod break at speed. The fireman suffered through all four seasons of Pennsylvania weather with minimal shelter. Noting these safety concerns, the Interstate Commerce Commission eventually outlawed construction of new Camelbacks in the late 1920’s.

Philadelphia & Reading 0-4-0 #1187 was built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1903. After a long career switching cars in yards for its owner (and its successor, the re-organized Reading Company), the engine was sold into industrial use with the E&G Brooke Iron Company in Birdsboro, Pennsylvania and re-numbered #4. The Strasburg Railroad – a pioneering tourist railroad in Lancaster County, PA – acquired the engine in 1962, and it was run to Strasburg under its own power. The little Camelback proved too light for most of Strasburg’s trains, and it last ran in 1967. After being displayed in the Strasburg yard as well as at the neighboring Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania, the engine was eventually deemed surplus. Age of Steam Roundhouse Museum purchased #1187, and the engine arrived at the Roundhouse on August 3rd, 2020. Plans call for this unique addition to receive a full cosmetic restoration in the future.

 

Heavyweight Coaches - CB&Q 6144 & 6148

Specifications
Builder:Pullman Company
Built:1922
Original Owner:Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad
Capacity:84 seats
Class:PB-20
Acquired:1990s

As railroad travel gained popularity in the second half of the 19th century, railroads and passenger car builders sought to improve rider safety. Wooden railcars posed a fire threat in the event of a derailment due to the coal stoves used to heat them. Further, wooden cars were more likely to “telescope,” with one car piercing the end of its neighboring car due to the forces of a collision. Toward the end of the century, steel railroad cars began to appear, offering reduced risk of fire and significantly increased strength in derailments. Most steel cars were built on a robust metal frame and concrete floor, increasing the total car weight over the wooden equipment they were replacing. To help spread the load, most rode on six wheel trucks. As a result, many early 20th century steel cars were nicknamed “heavyweights.”

By the time coaches 6144 and 6148 were built for the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad, steel passenger cars were commonplace. Ordered for the CB&Q’s premier trains with 54 other coaches, these cars provided comfortable seating for 84 passengers. Car 6144 offering a separate smoking section for 32 of its riders. Air conditioning was added to the cars in the early 1930’s. As “the Q” modernized its marquee trains with newer cars similar to Age of Steam’s lightweight train set, the venerable heavyweights were bumped to Chicago commuter train service and renumbered into the 7300-series. The CB&Q’s heavyweights were gradually retired in the 1960’s as passenger service declined, with the last commuter cars being surviving until 1973.

Coaches 6144 and 6148 were retired in 1967 and sold to the Illinois Railway Museum. After passing through subsequent owners, the cars were sold to Jerry Jacobson and moved to the Ohio Central Railroad. Age of Steam Roundhouse Museum crews performed repairs and repainted the two coaches into their classy “Pullman Green” livery in 2019.